Cascade Lake Processor

What is Cascade Lake Processor?

Cascade Lake is the codename of the 14 nm microarchitectures of the workstation, server, and enthusiast lines of processors from Intel.

Technically, Cascade Lake CPU follows the PAO or Process Architecture Optimization model of Intel and is basically an optimization of the Skylake line of processors.

Understanding Cascade Lake Processor

What is Cascade Lake Processor

Cascade Lake is the codename of the microarchitecture of Intel processors.

These 2nd generation processors typically come with Intel C620 series chipsets and offer significantly high performance even with AI workloads.

With features like Deep Learning Boost, the processor combines different IoT workloads as well and can deal with a large dataset and ensure transactions in real time – well, almost.

The Intel Cascade Lake processors come with significant enhancements in specific areas such as:

Some of the top specifications of this particular line of processors from Intel include:

With all these features, the functionality of the Cascade Lake processors from Intel is highly enhanced which helps them to offer the following:

The best part of these processors is that they allow hardware mitigations with their enhanced security for the Meltdown and Specter vulnerabilities.

In case you do not know, these two vulnerabilities can exist in computers, mobile devices, and even in the cloud infrastructure.

These vulnerabilities can steal data when a program is being processed in a system and there will be no traces of it left in the traditional log files.

Other significant benefits offered by the Cascade Lake processors, apart from the above, include the following:

General information

Here are a few facts about the Intel Cascade Lake processors at a glance:

Instruction extensions

This processor supports different instruction extensions such as:

Main features

Some of the key features of the Intel Cascade Lake processors are as follows:

Different variants of Cascade Lake processors are available with different brand names and families.

The different names of these processors are as follows:

As for the families of Intel Cascade Lake processors, there are five of them, each with different features, such as:

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Memory subsystem

Technically, the memory hierarchy of the Intel Cascade Lake processors is similar to that of its predecessor, Skylake, and is as follows.

The L0 µOP cache comes with the following features:

The Level 1 instruction cache comes with the following features:

The Level 1 data cache comes with the following features:

The Level 2 cache comes with the following features:

The Level 3 cache comes with the following features:

The system’s Dynamic Random Access Memory or DRAM comes with the following features:

Translation Lookaside Buffer

The Cascade Lake processors also come with a Translation Lookaside Buffer that consists of a dedicated L1 TLB for instruction cache called the ITLB and one for data cache called the DTLB.

In addition to that, there is also another unified L2 TLB called the STLB. All of these come with diverse features as follows:

ITLB

The ITLB allows two types of page translations.

As for 4 KiB page translations, the features are as follows:

As for 2 MiB / 4 MiB page translations, the features are as follows:

DTLB

The DTLB allows three types of page translations with different features.

As for 4 KiB page translations, the features are as follows:

As for 2 MiB / 4 MiB page translations, the features are as follows:

As for 1G page translations, the features are as follows:

STLB

The STLB allows two types of page translations with different features.

As for 4 KiB + 2 MiB page translations, the features are as follows:

As for 1 GiB page translations, the features are as follows:

Connectivity Support

Typically, the on-chip architecture of the Cascade Lake processors, especially the SP variants, use a similar mesh layout as that of the Skylake processors.

Here, the Level 3 cache and the cores are typically arranged in rows and columns and not in a ring architecture, as it was used in the previous Xeon processors.

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These processors normally support up to three Intel Ultra Path Interconnect or UPI links that run at a high speed of usually up to 10.4 Gigatransfers per second (GT/s).

Each of these links comes with separate lanes that allow transfer of data in two directions.

For three links, the total full-duplex bandwidth is 62.4 GB/s, and for those with only two links, the total full-duplex bandwidth is 41.6 GB/s.

For the inter-node network the Cascade Lake processors usually use two PCIe or Peripheral Component Interconnect Express interfaces, one for each socket.

This offers a bandwidth in excess of 15 GB/s in each direction with the use of the Endpoint Detection and Response or EDR technology of 100 GBit/s.

Cascade Lake vs Ice Lake

Which Generation is Cascade Lake?

The Cascade Lake processors belong to the 2nd generation of Intel processors.

Typically, it is the earlier name of the 2nd generation of Intel Xeon Scalable processors.

Conclusion

The Cascade Lake CPUs the successors of Intel Skylake and predecessors of Intel Ice Lake and Cooper Lake processors.

These 2nd generation CPUs come with a lot of upgrades in different fields over and above speed and performance and come with a lot of useful features that help in many specific hardware mitigations.